Food & Wellbeing

Food Ladders

No comments

A multi-scaled approach to everyday food security and community resilience
by Dr Megan Blake, University of Sheffield

Dr. Megan Blake is a member of Reference Group for GMPA’s Food Poverty Alliance. The Alliance  recommends place-based approaches to tackling food poverty, to complement city-regional and national action, and the following approach can be used to frame and inform those localised approaches.

Finding innovative interventions for building food secure communities

Food Ladders is a novel, evidenced-based approach for creating household and community resilience by building on the capacity of food to bring people together. Food Ladders is not like existing household food insecurity approaches that focus on the lack of good food within households that then feed that gap. Instead, Food Ladders activates food and its related practices to reduce local vulnerability to food insecurity and its knock-on effects.

Specifically, Food Ladders advocates for:
– Mobilising the more than nutrient, calorie and commercial aspects of food, such as its capacity to bring people together to foster shared understanding and collaboration;
– Creating safe and inclusive spaces for experimentation and interaction with food;
– Using a positive language of empowerment around food;
– Building place-specific levels of support that enable the recognition and enhancement of locally based skills and assets to create transformations in communities.

What is the Food Ladders approach?

Food Ladders are community scale interventions aimed at building local level resilience in the face of food insecurity. The approach was developed for low-income communities to address the wider effects that poverty has on health, wellbeing, and community cohesion. However, all communities can benefit from Food Ladders. The approach is not intended to replace national level campaigns, but instead complements those campaigns and may even foster activism. Food Ladders works with the specific characteristics of places to enable three levels of intervention These include:

Catching.  This first rung provides a starting point for those who are in crisis.  Such interventions might include emergency food aid, mental health support, access to social services, etc. Catching enables the ability to cope with a shock, whether that be the loss of a job, an unexpected large payment, debt, longer-term illness or relationship breakdown.

Capacity building to enable change.  This second rung supports those not currently in crisis, but who may be struggling to afford and/or access good food.  Activities include training programmes, shared cooking and eating activities, food pantries, children’s holiday clubs, and voucher schemes. Done in a manner that celebrates difference and is not stigmatising, activities provide residents with accessible choices that relieve the stresses that co-exist with low-incomes, expand skills, and enable the recognition of personal and local assets. These interventions connect people together by creating networks of trust and reciprocity through shared activity around food. This sort of intervention enables people and communities to be more adaptable by expanding what they can bring to the table to make change.

Self-organised community change.  This third rung supports communities to realise goals through self-organised projects that capitalise on what is good in communities. Projects meet community needs as residents identify them. Examples include developing a social enterprise based on community cooking knowledge that provides employment, community story-telling that leads to activism, cooperative food growing and food procurement that increases the local availability of good food, regular social cooking and eating activities to overcome loneliness, cross social divides and create intergenerational knowledge transfer.

What can Local Authorities, Community Organisations, Food Alliances and others do to support local Food Ladders?

There is a lot that these different types of organisations can do to support and build Food Ladders, including undertaking mapping, reflective reviews and evaluations of existing practices. There is a longer description of Food Ladders with pointers for how different types of organisations can start building food ladders in their area.

The research behind the Food Ladders approach:

Megan Blake Food article for GM Poverty Action

Megan Blake

Food Ladders was developed through a series of interdisciplinary research projects funded by the ESRC, MRC, and The N8 AgriFood Programme, involving local authorities, food industry actors, national charities and community organisations across the UK, which enabled a better understanding of what is working in communities and where different levels of resources and challenges are situated. A special mention goes to Gary Stott (Community Shop and Incredible Edible) and Samantha Siddall (ECO), Rupert Suckling (Doncaster Metropolitan Council), and the teams at Greater Manchester Poverty Action and FareShareUK.

If you would like to know more about Food Ladders please contact: Dr. Megan Blake, or Twitter: @GeoFoodieOrg. Megan is also an organiser of the Just Food Futures conference in July.

 

 

i3oz9sFood Ladders
read more

Healthy Start vouchers

No comments

Thousands of women and children miss out on healthy food scheme in 2018
Press release issued by Sustain, the alliance for better food and farming

Charities and health groups have warned Secretary of State for Health and Social Care Matt Hancock that low-income women and children in over 130,000 households are missing out on £28.6m of free fruit, vegetables and milk due to poor promotion of the Healthy Start voucher scheme. Of this, £4 million would have gone to families in the North West, a huge blow to the budgets of those who need it most.

The coalition of 26 charities and health bodies includes Sustain: the alliance for better food and farming, the Royal Society for Public Health, Royal College of Midwives and the Trussell Trust. They called on the Government to boost promotion of the Healthy Start voucher scheme, which can be worth up to £900 per child over the first four years of life.

The vouchers adds at least £3.10 to a family shop per child each week and over the first four years of a child’s life this is equivalent to 1,090 pints of milk, 1,100 apples, 218kg of carrots and 143kg of peas.

Kath Dalmeny, Chief Executive, Sustain: the alliance for better food and farming, said “The Government is missing a trick. This money has been set aside to support low income and young families, but the Healthy Start voucher scheme for fruit, vegetables and milk is not being properly managed or promoted. Over 4 million children are living in households who sometimes run out of money for essentials such as food – these vouchers can help keep good food on the table.”

Shirley Cramer, CBE, Chief Executive of the Royal Society of Public Health, said “Having access to nutritious food required for healthy development is a right of every child. We know that healthy food is three times more expensive than unhealthy food; the scheme can help those at the greatest disadvantage in the most deprived areas.”

However in 2018, pregnant women and children missed out on an estimated £28.6 million worth of vouchers in England and Wales, representing a missed opportunity by government to help families afford to heed their young families and also to encourage healthy eating habits that could have lifelong benefits.

An open letter calls on the Government to fund a programme to ensure that midwives, health visitors, GPs and other relevant staff in health, social care and early years settings actively help all eligible pregnant women and new parents claim their Heathy Start vouchers. They suggest that this programme could be funded from the estimated £28.6 million of Healthy Start vouchers that went unclaimed last year.

The letter also asks the Government to confirm the date for a consultation on Healthy Start, which was committed to by the Department of Health and Social Care last June in Chapter 2 of Childhood Obesity: a plan for action.

Sustain logo - healthy start vouchers article for GM Poverty ActionThe Sustain food and farming alliance, which coordinated the open letter, is also encouraging people to write to their MP about Healthy Start to make sure all children have access to fresh fruit and vegetables for a healthy start in life.

Average take-up of the vouchers in England and Wales was only 64% in 2018, or
approximately 135,000 households missing out, with no government funds dedicated to supporting local health service providers to promote the scheme. A map of current take-up rates in England and Wales is publicly available and updated monthly by the Department of Health.

 

i3oz9sHealthy Start vouchers
read more

Kellogg’s double breakfast club grants

No comments

In March Kellogg’s pledged to support the Greater Manchester Food Poverty Alliance in several ways, including increased their support for breakfast clubs across the city region. Now they have published a report showing the scale of hunger in the classroom, and committed more resources across the country. This is part of an expansion of their corporate responsibility work and impact, Kellogg’s Better Days, which seeks to address the interconnected issues of food security, climate and wellbeing.

One in nine children missing six hours of learning each week through hunger in the classroom

One in nine children goes to school with an empty tummy and the effect of this is a loss of education.

Research by Kellogg’s, with 4,000 children and 950 teachers suggests that the impact of hunger in the classroom is huge with children losing six hours of learning each week. if they arrive at school hungry.  That’s the equivalent of three weeks of learning time each term.

A fifth of teachers say that a hungry child takes up too much of their time and two thirds (67%) claim they are unable to learn. Children agree it impacts their education with half of breakfast skippers saying they can’t concentrate in the morning.

Older children are even more likely to start the day without anything to eat, with one in six secondary schoolchildren not having breakfast and girls are the worst culprits for skipping breakfast before school, especially in high schools with nearly a fifth not eating in the morning.

For those children at schools in areas of high deprivation a third said they noticed a child at their school was hungry and gave them some of their food to eat.

Breakfast clubs Kelloggs for GM Poverty Action
But, one in seven teachers warn that recent changes in school funding have negatively impacted their breakfast club provision. It’s important these clubs continue to run as the benefit of them is proven with a third of teachers saying that pupils who attend a breakfast club are keen and ready to learn.

Peter Cansell, National Association Primary Education said: “It’s shocking that in 2019 there are still nearly 800,000 children starting the school day on an empty tummy. This is leading to a shortfall in critical learning time.

“This research even shows that those children that eat breakfast are happier, probably because they have the energy and enthusiasm to enjoy the school day. The benefits of pre-school clubs are proven, they ensure that children go into the classroom with the ability to concentrate.”

For those that are eating in the morning there has been an increase in older children having their breakfast on the go, grabbing it on the way to school and more children are eating continental breakfast foods with twice as many starting the day with pancakes and croissants.

Today, Kellogg’s – a long standing supporter of Breakfast Clubs –  announced it is doubling the number of grants it offers school breakfast clubs to support one in four schools in the poorest parts of the UK.

Oli Morton, Kellogg’s managing director said: “We believe every child should have the best start to their day and our latest study shows the importance of a good breakfast and that too many children are still going to school without the vital fuel that they need to help them learn”.

“This shows that the work that we and our partners carry out, as part of our Breakfast Club programme, is as important as ever. That’s why today we will be doubling our commitment to breakfast clubs in 2019 to reach the most vulnerable parts of the country as they play a vital role in giving a child the best start to their day.”

Schools can apply to join the Kellogg’s Breakfast Club network by emailing breakfastclubuk@kellogg.com

 

i3oz9sKellogg’s double breakfast club grants
read more

Funding for playschemes

No comments

The Greater Manchester Food Poverty Action Plan, which we launched in March, calls for concerted action to provide food with activities for children and young people during school holidays. Manchester Holiday Buzz is a great example of this, involving businesses, charities, the council and housing associations.

Manchester Holiday Buzz Playscheme Fund 2019-2020
Young Manchester is passionate about giving children and young people the opportunity to play. We know that financially disadvantaged children can experience hunger in the holidays and a holiday experience gap. Open access playschemes are one way for children to make new friends, stay active and access healthy food during the school holidays.  Playschemes offer supervised play during school holidays. Most schemes are free of charge, but some may ask for a small donation eg 50p per session.

Funding is available for the delivery of open access holiday playschemes for children and young people aged 5 – 14 years.  Closing date for applications: 5pm Friday June 14th 2019. This is for voluntary and community sector organisations working with children and young people and education providers partnering with the VCSE sector.  Organisations must be based in Manchester and/or mainly working with Manchester residents

For more information, the fund prospectus, application guidance and an application form please go to the website

 

i3oz9sFunding for playschemes
read more

Cracking Good Food collection

No comments

Any spare mugs, saucepans, trowels, watering cans?

As part of the Greater Manchester Food Poverty Action Plan launched in March 2019, Cracking Good Food have set up a sponsorship package to facilitate some offers of support through their organisation.  Find out more here

They have also put out a call for all unwanted cooking and growing equipment in order to furnish the community groups and hostels that they are working in with the tools that are needed.  Collected items can also be shared out among families and individuals moving on from temporary accommodation.

Through the sponsorship opportunities, Apex Storage have donated 4 secure storage units where kitchen and garden items donated by everyone can be collected before being redistributed across the city region.   The units are in Cheadle, Ardwick, Radcliffe and near Sport City. Full addresses and drop off instructions here. Please contact Tracey at Cracking Good Food to arrange delivery.

They are looking for: mugs, plates in all sizes, cutlery, soup and cereal bowls, aprons, baking trays, chopping boards, saucepans, utensils, sieves, graters, colanders and storage including airtight food containers.  Also most welcome would be small electrical appliances such as blenders, kettles, toasters, microwaves and slow cookers. Larger white goods, such as fridges, freezers, dishwashers and cookers can also be redistributed.

For the ‘grow your own’ projects they need: growing containers, trowels, forks, spades, gardening gloves, composting soil, rakes, wheelbarrows, canes, garden twine and string, watering cans and hoses and especially seeds, small fruit bushes and salad plants.

So do pass on that collection of odd dinner plates, or those extra mugs you don’t need, the stack of garden tubs that you no longer want to pot up and those lettuce seeds someone gave you that you just know you’ll never sow!

If you would like to get more involved please check out the Action Plan to see how you could contribute.

Cracking Good Food Collection for GM Poverty Action

i3oz9sCracking Good Food collection
read more

Inspiring Communities Together

No comments

Food Matters

Over the past year Inspiring Communities Together in partnership with Age UK Salford, Salford Royal and Salford City Council Public Health Team and other community venues have tested a variety of approaches to try and address community food-related issues.

The approach developed delivered a programme of activities across the life course of start well, live well and age well.

Whilst the test model developed by this partnership came before the launch the GM Food Poverty Action Plan they have been able to demonstrate that their approach has:

  • provided more people with knowledge and skills to make healthy food choices through a variety of tools;
  • the joined-up approach has brought together a variety of partners and funding to test a different approach to
    addressing food poverty;
  • more people are now making healthy food choices from across the life course;
  • the programme of activity has supported friendships to grow within neighbourhoods.

To develop and deliver this approach has required not only the commitment of the partnership but also access to funding to support management and co-ordination of the model.

For 2019-20 Inspiring Communities Together have made a commitment to:

  • carry on the work testing a place-based approach to addressing food poverty using the GM Food Poverty Action Plan;
  • build on the learning developed during this period of work to develop a neighbourhood model which can be
    replicated in other neighbourhoods;
  • use the learning that has already taken place to identify funding sources which can provide the resources needed.

Their full report Food Matters: A Neighbourhood Approach, Lessons Learnt April 2018 – March 2019 is available here

 

i3oz9sInspiring Communities Together
read more

Taking Action on Food Poverty

No comments

Greater Manchester Takes Action Together on Food Poverty

In the month since we launched the Food Poverty Action Plan, we have been meeting leaders, businesses, and charities to ask what they will do to make the plan a reality. The response has been very positive, with over 30 organisations covering most of Greater Manchester’s boroughs, making more than 70 pledges of action and funding. The pledges will be published when the new Food Poverty Alliance coordinator is in post, so far they include:

  • Salford City Council and the Salford Food Share Network pledging to better coordinate and strengthen food
    support services across the city, while giving advice to other localised food support networks
  • Wigan Council influencing education providers to teach good food on a tight budget, rolling out a nutrition and hydration training programme with Domiciliary Care Staff, and many other pledges
  • Kellogg’s supporting 100 school breakfast clubs in Greater Manchester with cash grants totalling £100,000,
    helping to feed at least 5000 children
  • The Roman Catholic Diocese of Salford contributing £2,500 towards the cost of employing a Food Poverty Alliance coordinator
  • Many smaller organisations pledging to take action however they can, such as setting up food pantries, becoming accrediting Real Living Wage employers, and developing toolkits to help people and organisations tackle food poverty where they are, such as author Danielle Lowy from Chorlton Plant Swap who is writing “Nifty Thrifty Vegetable Gardening: Tips for growing your own food without costing the earth”

These pledges show Greater Manchester’s resolve to take action on hunger, and more than that, it shows an understanding that through coordinated strategic action we can start to address the underlying causes and ultimately work to eradicate food poverty in our city region.

We are also working to raise funds for a full-time coordinator, so would welcome pledges of financial support such as that made by Salford Diocese. The coordinator will:

  • drive forward the recommendations in the Action Plan at the Greater Manchester level
  • work in-depth in some neighbourhoods to pilot place-based approaches to tackling food poverty
  • keep the Alliance working together and bringing out the best in Greater Manchester’s response to food poverty
Tom for GMFPA article for GM Poverty Action

Tom Skinner, Director of GMPA

Can you pledge to take action on food poverty by starting to implement one or more of the actions in the Plan? Please email food@gmpovertyaction.org with PLEDGE in the subject line

 

i3oz9sTaking Action on Food Poverty
read more

Can you pledge?

No comments

 

More than 50 pledges have been made by people and organisations across Greater Manchester, to implement the recommended actions in the Food Poverty Action Plan. Here Mylo Kaye from the charity “Pledge” talks about action that he is taking to tackle food poverty. Can you pledge to take action on food poverty by starting to implement one or more of the actions in the Plan? Please read the Action Plan and email to tell us what you will do to make the Food Poverty Action Plan a reality.

From earth to table, how local allotment growing is feeding people in poverty

By Mylo Kaye, CEO of Pledge

On an allotment in Stretford, a group of friends led by Kal Gill-Faci are spending most weekends clearing, weeding and getting the ground ready to sow fruit and vegetables that will soon make their way to the tables of Greater Manchester people. This natural, healthy, nutritious food is helping to combat food poverty.

Pledge article for GM Poverty Action

Kal Gill-Faci delivers fresh produce to Reach out to the Community

Humphrey Park allotments are home to Pledge, a local charity helping people living in poverty. The charity, started last year is focused on ending poverty for those living across Greater Manchester.

For the past year, food grown has been harvested and donated to other local charities such as Cornerstone, The Longford Centre, Barnabus, Mustard Tree, Reach Out to the Community & The Globe Food Pantry. These partnerships are vital to the success of ‘Plot for Poverty’ and the initiative couldn’t happen without them.

Over 7,400 meals will have been delivered to hungry people across our region by the Autumn, and with the only cost being time, it’s a win-win for local people in need and the charities cooking the fresh food. Typical fruit and veg that is grown are things like Kale, Potatoes, Cauliflower, Onions and Grapes, plus many more. The food makes its way from earth to table in a matter of hours.

Local children are also actively involved in the growing. Education around food poverty amongst people who are homeless is essential, these young people are our leaders of tomorrow and we need them to get involved and make their own change.

Mylo Kaye article for GM Poverty Action

Mylo Kaye

Individuals, groups and allotments across Greater Manchester are encouraged to get involved to help end food poverty in the region, by either starting their own ‘Plot for Poverty’ or by offering time and resources to Pledge to maximise growing efforts in the run-up to the Autumn months.

We can all make a massive impact by finding intuitive ways to help people living in poverty, but we can only do this by working together.

You can see a video of the project here

 

i3oz9sCan you pledge?
read more

Launch of the Food Poverty Action Plan

No comments

GMFPA logo

Last week GMPA launched Greater Manchester’s first ever Food Poverty Action Plan to a packed hall in Manchester. The Action Plan was the culmination of 10 months work by over 100 people and organisations, which I have had the privilege of coordinating.

With over 600,000 people, including 200,000 children, living in poverty in Greater Manchester and food bank use higher in the city region than most other parts of the country, the plan calls for action by organisations across all sectors to help prevent people falling into poverty, and to support people relying on food handouts out of poverty through advice, support and signposting.Infographic2 GMFPA for GM Poverty Action

Andy Burnham at GMFPA APL for GM Poverty Action

GM Mayor Andy Burnham

Andy Burnham, Mayor of Greater Manchester, who wrote the foreword for the Action Plan, spoke at the event and pledged that he would write to every public body in Greater Manchester, asking them to implement this plan at the local level.

To read the summary or full action plan please go to the GM Food Poverty Action Plan page

Panel at GMFPA APL for GM Poverty Action

Some of the chairs of the Food Poverty Alliance’s nine sub-groups took questions from the audience

 

 

 

 

 

Pledge 6 at GMFPA APL for GM Poverty Action

 

Among many other things, the action plan calls for:

  • A joined-up response on the ground – the provision of debt, welfare advice and other support alongside the provision of food handouts and support, so that people get the most appropriate help as quickly as possible;
  • More longer-term options for people in need of food support, such as food clubs, pantries and community grocers, to match the level of support provided for people in moments of crisis;GMFPA Inforgraphic 4 for GM Poverty Action
  • A lead for poverty to be appointed by the GM Combined Authority and each of Greater Manchester’s ten councils;
  • Schools to increase uptake of free school meals, and to work with local businesses and charities to run breakfast clubs, while supporting coordinated action on holiday hunger;
  • A campaign to increase uptake of Healthy Start Vouchers, an NHS scheme that supports parents on low incomes to buy healthy food for their young children. GMPA estimates around £3.6million worth of vouchers went unclaimed in Greater Manchester last year;GMFPA Infographic 5 for GM Poverty Action
  • Health services to expand social prescribing for healthy food-related activities such as cooking classes and food growing, and to work with charities and businesses to promote healthy food.

The full plan has more than 70 actions, including something for each organisation in every sector and every borough of Greater Manchester to do, to play their part in tackling food poverty. You can find both the summary and the full Action Plan (the more detailed full version will evolve as the plan is implemented, hence the more minimalist presentation) here, along with more information about the Food Poverty Alliance and how it has co-produced the Action Plan.

To continue coordinating the work of the Food Poverty Alliance, we also need to secure additional project funding and are asking organisations across Greater Manchester to pledge financial support to help us recruit a full-time project worker who will:

•  Drive forward the recommended actions in the Action Plan, working with partners and allies across all sectors and in all boroughs to encourage action and to provide support and advice;

•  Convene open meetings between all stakeholders who are taking action on food poverty, to encourage a joined-up response and evidence-based action;

•  Work with the food support sector (food banks, food clubs etc) to ensure provision matches people’s and
communities’ needs;

•  Ensure that food poverty action is joined up with other action on food.

A funding proposal and budget is available on request from food@gmpovertyaction.org.

Tom Skinner editorial article for GM Poverty Action

Tom Skinner, GMPA Director

With the plan launched, now we need to make it a reality, with joined-up efforts to reduce and prevent food poverty for thousands of people all across Greater Manchester. More than 50 pledges have already been made by people and organisations across Greater Manchester. Can you pledge to take action on food poverty by starting to implement one or more of the actions in the Plan? Please email food@gmpovertyaction.org

 

i3oz9sLaunch of the Food Poverty Action Plan
read more

Underlying Causes of Food Poverty

No comments

Addressing the underlying causes of food poverty
By Dr Mags Adams

Dr Mags Adams is Senior Research Co-ordinator at UCLAN’s Institute of Citizenship, Society and Change. She chaired one of the sub-groups of the Greater Manchester Food Poverty Alliance, which recommended actions for the Food Poverty Action Plan to address the underlying causes of food poverty. You can read the recommended actions, all of which were included in the Action Plan, and discuss them, here.

Food insecurity in the UK is on the rise as evidenced by the increased use of food banks across the country1 and the increasing number of deaths from malnutrition  (up by more than 30% between 2007 and 20162). At a time when Greater Manchester is performing well economically in terms of job creation and private sector business growth, low pay and low skills mean many people are not benefiting from the region’s success ; median full-time wages are £50 per week lower in Greater Manchester (£494) than they are nationally (£545), and 23% of workers are paid below the voluntary Living Wage3. Universal credit was piloted in Tameside in Greater Manchester before being rolled out to Oldham and further afield. It replaced six means tested benefits with one single payment. It has been highly criticised due to effects on housing rights, evictions and homelessness4. In October 2017 it was reported that 80% of claimants in some housing associations had fallen behind with rent because of delays in receiving their payments5. This new benefit has an inbuilt six-week delay in receiving payments, allegedly to mirror being paid monthly in the workplace (However, it should be noted than many of those earning under £10,000 per annum are actually paid weekly6). In reality delays of ten and twelve weeks are not uncommon before payments are received7.

Many additional factors are also at play in determining why people experience food poverty. For example, food prices fluctuate, the UK is a net importer of food8 and the fall in the pound since the EU referendum has pushed the cost of living upwards9. Furthermore, housing prices are disproportionately higher than in other European countries.

Child poverty in Manchester is one of the highest rates by local authority area; 35.5% of children under 16 live in poverty with 69.4% of them living in workless households10. Many people living in poverty are in part-time and low paid work.

Dr Mags Adams article for GM Poverty Action

Dr Mags Adams

By addressing the underlying causes of food poverty, we can ensure that everyone in Greater Manchester is food secure and has ‘adequate access at all times to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life’11. Many of the problems associated with food poverty, including hunger and malnutrition, are problems caused by poverty. Addressing this will mean that households have a real living wage for a decent quality of life, that homelessness becomes a thing of the past, that children can focus on their education rather than their hunger, and that everyone has an affordable place to live.

Mags is seeking people to apply for a fully-funded PhD on the topic of “Local food systems and local economic democracy: a framework for delivering food security?” Full details here

1 Bulman, M. (2018, 24 April). Food bank use in UK reaches highest rate on record as benefits fail to cover basic costs. Independent. Available here

2 British Specialist Nutrition Association (2018). Forgotten not Fixed: A Blueprint to Tackle  the Increasing Burden of Malnutrition in England. Available here

3 Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2017). 100-day countdown: Greater Manchester mayor must get to grips with region’s in-work poverty problem.  Available here

4 Greater Manchester Law Centre (2017). “We demand: no evictions as a result of Universal Credit delays” says GMLC, Disabled People Against the Cuts, Acorn tenants’ union and others. Available here

5 Williams, J. (2017, 19 Oct). Families are ‘being made homeless’ by Universal Credit – but its rollout will continue. Available here

6 Institute for Government (2017). The problems with Universal Credit. Available here

7 See Institute for Government (2017) above.

8 Gov.UK (2017). Food Statistics in your pocket 2017 – Global and UK supply. Available here

9 Jackson, G. (2017, 14 Nov). UK food prices rise at fastest rate in four years. Financial Times. Available here

10 Manchester City Council (2017). Manchester City Council Report for Resolution Manchester Family Poverty Strategy 2017-2022. Available here

11 World Food Programme (2018). What is food security? Available here

 

i3oz9sUnderlying Causes of Food Poverty
read more